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 Glazed and Fired:

Celadon Ceramics from the UMAG Collection

窯火純青:

香港大學美術博物館藏青釉器

 

Curated by Kenneth Shing-Kwan Chan

Edited by Dr Florian Knothe, Christopher Mattison and Kuldip Kaur Singh

策展人:陳承焜

文字編輯:羅諾德博士,馬德松,星家恩

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Introduction

Pre-dating the Neolithic period, ceramic wares are some of the earliest man-made objects to integrate science, technology and the arts. A close examination of ceramics can reveal the creative advances of individuals in various cultures and time periods, and reflect a society’s broader development and technical progress. 


With a long history of innovation and craftsmanship, celadon wares have provided a crucial reference point for the study of ceramic production in China. The term ‘celadon’ historically refers to specific types of ceramics coated with a green-coloured glaze. Taking its name from a French literary character best known for his distinctive green attire, some scholars prefer to avoid this arbitrary Western construction and instead apply the term ‘greenware’. 


Constant advances in raw material selection, firing techniques and the shaping of forms have enabled celadon ceramics to develop continuously over the past two millennia. The UMAG collection of celadon spans a period of more than fifteen hundred years of celadon’s history, from the early lead-glazed pottery of the Han (漢朝; 202 BCE–220 CE) to the stunning Guan wares of the Song dynasty (宋朝; 960–1279 CE), providing a rich overview of the traditions and transitions of these widely-coveted objects.

  

 導言

陶瓷器物歷史悠久,在新石器時代前便已開始出現,可以說是最早融合科學、技術和藝術的人造物。對陶瓷的深入探究,不但可以揭示人類在各種文化和時代中展現的創作力量,更能反映出社會的整體發展和技術進步。


而在悠久的創新和工藝史中,青釉器(Celadon)為中國陶瓷生產的研究提供了重要的參考依據。青釉器泛指塗有青綠釉料的陶瓷器物,而「Celadon」一詞則由法國文學中,一位身穿獨特綠衣的角色的名字衍生而來。一些學者為避免「Celadon」當中隱含的西方建構,而改用「Greenware」一詞。


在原材料的選擇,燒製技術和塑形技巧等方面的不斷進步,使青釉器在過去兩千年中得到持續發展。香港大學美術博物館擁有橫跨超過一千五百年的中國青釉器藏品,從漢代(公元前202–公元220年)的早期綠釉器到宋代(公元960–1279 年)的瑰麗官窯器,讓觀眾得以概觀這些廣受青睞的青釉器物的傳統和演變。
 

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I. Han-dynasty Green-glazed Ceramics

I. 漢代綠釉器

  

Vase, Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 CE), Earthenware with green glaze. HKU.C.1953.0069
瓶,東漢 (25–220 CE) ,綠釉陶器.HKU.C.1953.0069

3D Model of the Han-dynasty Vase (HKU.C.1953.0069)

Creator: Tullia Fraser

漢代鉛釉瓶(HKU.C.1953.0069)的三維模型

設計者:韋莉雅

Created in the Eastern Han dynasty (東漢; 25–220 CE), one of this small vase’s (HKU.C.1953.0069) most significant characteristics is its lead-based, dark olive-toned glaze. Originally developed to replicate the colour and texture of bronze, some of the earliest examples of lead-glazed pottery (鉛釉器) imitating bronze are known from the end of the Warring States period (戰國時代; 475–221 BCE). Occasionally found in Western Han (西漢; 202 BCE–9 CE) tombs, the technique became increasingly popular in the later Eastern Han period (Vainker, 1991). As lead is highly toxic, the majority of excavated lead-glazed wares were created as mingqi (明器 grave goods), rather than as objects for everyday use. Lead glazes were also used in the Roman Empire around this time, though it is unknown whether there is any connection between these two traditions.

Lead-green is a low-temperature glaze that uses lead as a fluxing agent. Due to variations in local raw materials and glaze recipes, low-temperature lead-glazed pottery was created primarily in the northern section of China during the Han dynasty, whereas potters in Southern China mainly produced high-temperature calcium-glazed pottery (Wang et al., 2019). Exemplified by the brownish mottling on the vase’s surface, tints and impurities often appear in lead glazes as a result of a number of uncontrollable factors. The vase’s interior and base are left unglazed, a characteristic shared by many Han-dynasty ceramic wares. According to Trubner and Falk (1961), the consistent distribution of glazes on Han dynasty vessels was the result of potters applying the glaze materials from above, which resulted in the coverage of only the upper side and rim with glaze.

 

這件小瓶(HKU.C.1953.0069)於東漢時期(公元25-220年)製成,其深橄欖色鉛釉為最顯著的特徵之一。鉛釉器的誕生最初是為了模仿青銅的顏色和質感,而最早的鉛釉器出產於戰國時代晚期(公元前475-221年)。西漢(公元前202–公元9 年)的墓穴中偶爾會挖掘出鉛釉器,而鉛釉器物在東漢後期更變得越來越流行(Vainker,1991)。鉛具有劇毒,因此大多數出土的鉛釉器,都是作為明器(陪葬品)而製成,而非用作日常用品。在相若的時期,羅馬帝國亦有使用鉛釉料,儘管至今尚未清楚知道這兩種釉料傳統之間,是否存在任何關聯。

鉛綠釉是一種使用鉛作為助熔劑的低溫釉料。在漢代,各地原材料和釉料配方的差異,引致中國北部主要製作低溫鉛釉陶器,而南方地區則以生產高溫鈣釉陶器為主的情況(Wang et al.,2019)。由於各種不可控制的因素,漢代鉛釉經常出現色斑和雜質,就如這件小瓶釉料表面上的褐色斑點。此小瓶的內部和底部均未上釉,而這是許多漢代陶器的共有特徵。Trubner 和Falk(1961)指出,由於漢代陶工一般會從上方施以釉料,使釉料僅能覆蓋容器的上側和邊緣,令漢代陶器的釉料有著相若的分佈。

Model of Dog, Han dynasty (202 BCE –220 CE), Earthenware with green glaze. Gift of Songyin Ge Collection, HKU.C.2020.2475

綠釉瓷狗,漢 (202 BCE –220 CE) ,綠釉陶器.松隱閣惠贈HKU.C.2020.2475

With its upward-facing head, floppy ears, unflinching gaze and mouth open mid-bark, this glazed pottery figure (HKU.C.2020.2475) depicts a rather solid and spirited looking canine. The ceramic dog is covered with a finely crackled green glaze, while the underside has been left unglazed, revealing its reddish-brown clay body. Likely a highly desirable item at the time, the studded, elaborately designed collar suggests the animal had an affluent owner. The majority of Han dynasty ceramic dogs unearthed at sites across China were made in a static pose, with a small number shown walking or barking. For a similar green-glazed dog dating to the Eastern Han, see R. Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, 1994, vol. I, p. 75. 

In the Han dynasty, dogs were popularly used for hunting and as guards, and ceramic dogs served as guardians in the afterlife (Rotondo-McCord, 2005). It was common to bury figures of dogs, as people believed they would accompany the deceased. Earlier in the Shang period, it had been common to bury dogs alive in tombs—a practice which continued until at least the Western Zhou (Mair, 1988). The remains of two hunting dogs were discovered in the late fourth-century tomb of the fifth ruler of the state of Zhongshan during the Warring States period. By the time of the Han dynasty, live dogs had been replaced by glazed ceramic models.

此釉器模型(HKU.C.2020.2475)有著向上的頭部,下垂的雙耳,堅定的目光和張開的嘴巴,刻劃出一隻意氣風發、炯炯有神的小狗。這件釉器被充滿細裂紋的綠釉覆蓋,其底部未有施上釉料,展露出其紅褐色的粘土土體。小狗的頸部配戴著飾有鉚釘,精心設計的頸圈。這種頸圈很有可能是當時受歡迎的飾品,亦顯示出小狗也許有著一位富裕的主人。中國各地出土的漢代陶狗模型多數有著靜態的表現,少數則呈現步行或吠叫的姿態。與這件釉器相類似的東漢陶狗,可見於康蕊君,《玫茵堂藏中國陶瓷》卷一,1994年,75頁。

在漢代,犬隻經常肩負起狩獵和守衛等工作,而陶狗模型則被認為是亡者在冥界的守護者(Rotondo-McCord,2005)。當時,人們相信犬隻會在死後世界陪伴亡者,所以時常將狗隻與死者一同安葬在墓穴之中。在商代早期,將活狗埋入陵墓的情況十分普遍,而這種習俗至少持續至西周時期(Mair,1988年)。在戰國時代,中山國第五任君主的王陵中,便發現了兩隻獵狗的遺骸。直至漢代,釉面陶狗模型才取代活狗作為陪葬物。

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Watchtower, Han dynasty (202 BCE –220 CE), Earthenware with green glaze, Gift of Dr T. T. Tsui, Tsui Art Foundation Ltd. HKU.C.1996.1088.

瞭望台,漢 (202 BCE –220 CE) ,綠釉陶器.徐氏藝術基金公司徐展堂博士惠贈,HKU.C.1996.1088

Ceramic models of architectural structures were commonly included in Eastern Han tombs as a way to provide for the souls of the deceased. Green-glazed watchtowers (HKU.C.1996.1088) are among the largest ceramic objects to be excavated from Han dynasty tombs. Made of reddish-brown clay and covered with an uneven layer of lead-green glaze, this watchtower consists of four sections. Offering a rare glimpse into the building styles of the Han dynasty, the models include meticulous details, from the roof tile ends and corner ornaments to the miniature human figures standing at the windows. 

東漢時期陵墓的明器之中,常常會包括建築物的陶器模型,予亡者之靈在冥界中使用。 這座綠釉瞭望台(HKU.C.1996.1088)是漢代墓穴出土的較大型陶製明器之一。這座瞭望台以紅棕色粘土坯體製成,被不均勻的綠釉層所覆蓋。整座綠釉瞭望台由四個部分組成,為中國漢代建築風格提供重要的參考依據。從屋頂設計與裝飾,到站在窗邊的微縮人物模型,整個建築物各部分的細節都塑造得非常仔細。

Well, Han dynasty (202 BCE –220 CE), Earthenware with green glaze, Gift of Ms Li Lai–wa, HKU.C.1997.1107

陶井,漢 (202 BCE –220 CE) ,綠釉陶器.李麗華女士惠贈 ,HKU.C.1997.1107

In addition to architectural structures, models of real-life objects, including pottery wells, mills, houses and pig sties were also regularly buried in tombs to provide for the deceased, who were believed to require provisions in the afterlife. Typically modelled with figurines of peasants and animals set within a granary, this well (HKU.C.1997.1107) and grain mill (HKU.C.2019.2490) models from the UMAG collection were likely produced as stand-alone grave goods. Ultimately, these burial objects worked in concert with other funerary goods to ensure the wellbeing of the dead in the afterlife. It is worth noting that the studded, circular ceramic disk of the grain mill model is unglazed, revealing the colour and texture of the clay body. It is unknown if the disk was never glazed, or if it delaminated over the centuries of burial. 

漢代人們普遍相信冥界的生活與在世時相若。為了使亡者在冥界的生活能夠好一點,漢代的明器除了建築物陶器模型外,還包括陶井、石磨、居室和豬舍等模仿生前所用物品而製作的陶器模型。這些模仿日常用品的模型通常是居室明器的一部分,輔以民房、農民或動物型的微縮模型,以滿足亡者在冥界的起居生活。館藏的這件水井(HKU.C.1997.1107)和石磨(HKU.C.2019.2490)模型,很有可能作為獨立的明器而製作。這些種類繁多的明器互相補充,以確保死者在冥界可以過美滿的生活。這件石磨模型的突狀圓盤頂部沒有釉層,展現出粘土體的顏色和質感,其成因可能是陶工當時未有施釉,或是釉料在幾個世紀的埋葬過程中被剝離。

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Grain Mill Model, Han dynasty (202 BCE –220 CE), Earthenware with green glaze. Gift of Claire and Francis Heritage Lane, HKU.C.2019.2490

石磨模型,漢 (202 BCE –220 CE) ,綠釉陶器.鴻踪里惠贈HKU.C.2019.2490

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II. Yue Celadons from the Han to Tang Dynasties 

II. 漢代至唐代期間的越窯青釉器